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CPR - Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

The following advice shows the first aid treatment for an unconscious casualty who is not breathing

Assessing the situation Dr ABC

Danger

Make the area safe, eg turn off electricity

If unable to ensure safety, do not approach until expert help arrives

Only move the casualty as a last resort

Response

Check if the casualty is conscious - call their name or shout 'open your eyes'

Tap their shoulders for a response

CPR

If safe, gently shake an adult

Do not shake an infant or child. Tap the sole of an infant's foot

Call for help

Airway

When a casualty is unconscious, their tongue can easily block their airway

Keep the airway open. With one hand placed across their forehead gently tilt the head back and with two fingers of the other hand placed under their chin, lift the chin up to raise the tongue off the back of the throat.

CPR

Breathing

Once the airway is open, check the casualty's breathing

Place your cheek above the casualty's mouth/nose

CPR

Listen, look and feel for breathing

If the casualty is not breathing normally, or if you are in any doubt start CPR immediately

Call for help, send a helper to dial 999/112, or call for emergency help yourself

If there is an AED nearby get that too

If the casualty is breathing normally, place them in the recovery position

Circulation

Check for severe bleeding and treat life threatening injuries

 


 

CPR - Adult

Perform 30 chest compressions using both hands:

Kneel beside the casualty

Place the heel of one hand on the centre of the chest. Do not press on the casualty's ribs, stomach or bottom of breastbone

CPR

Place the heel of your other hand on top. Interlock fingers and keep them off the casualty's ribs

CPR

Leaning over the casualty, press stright down to five to six centimetres keeping elbows straight

Rlease the pressure fully, but do not take hands off chest

Give 30 chest compressions, at a rate of between 100 - 120 compressions per minute

Perform two rescue breaths:

Ensure the airway is open

Support the casualty's chin with the fingertips of one hand

With the other hand, pinch the soft part of the casualty's nose

CPR

Use a pocket mask if available

Take a breath. Place your mouth over the casualty's mouth, making a good seal

Breathe steadily into the casualty's mouth for one second. Watch the chest rise

Keeping hands in position, remove your mouth. Let chest fall

Continue giving 30 chest compressions followed by two rescue breaths until one of these things happens:

Professional help takes over

The casualty starts to wake up, open their eyes AND breathes normally

You become exhausted

Note: If you are unable, unwilling or untrained to give rescue breaths, you can give continuous chest compressions only

 


 

CPR - Child

Perform up to five rescue breaths:

Ensure the airway is open

Carefully remove any visible obstruction from the mouth

Gently support chin with two fingertips of one hand

With the other hand pinch the soft part of the child's nose

Take a breath and place your mouth around the child's lips, making a good seal

Breath steadily into the child's mouth for one second. Watch the chest rise

Keeping hands in position, remove your mouth and allow their chest to fall

Give up to five rescue breaths

Perform 30 chest compressions:

Kneel beside the child

Leaning over, place the heel of one hand on the centre of the child's chest. Do not press down on the child's chest. DO not press down on the child's ribs, stomach or the bottom end of their breastbone

Press straight down to at least a third of the depth of the child's chest, keeping your elbow straight. Release the pressure fully but do not take your hand off their chest

Give 30 chest compressions at a rate of 100 - 120 compressions per minute

If you are performing chest compressions on a large child, or you are a small person, it may be easier to achieve the correct depth for each compression by using both hands as in the adult procedure

Give two rescue breaths

Continue alternating 30 chest compressions with two rescue breaths

After one minute, if you have no helper, dial 999/112 for an ambulance

Continue giving 30 chest compressions followed by two rescue breaths until one of these things happens:

Professional help takes over

The child starts to wake up, open their eyes AND breathes normally

You become exhausted

Note: If you are unable, unwilling or untrained to give rescue breaths, you can give continuous chest compressions only

 


 

CPR - Infant

Ask a helper to dial 999/112 for an ambulance

If you are alone, start the sequence of rescue breaths and chest compressions below. DO NOT leave the child alone at this time

Perform five initial rescue breaths:

Ensure airway is open

Do not tilt the head too far back as the airway may close

Carefully remove any visible obstructions from the mouth and nose

Keep supporting the infant's chin with the fingertip of one hand

Take a breath and seal your lips around the infant's mouth and nose

Breathe steadily into the infant's mouth for a second. Watch the chest rise

Keeping your hands in position, remove your mouth and allow their chest to fall

Give up to five rescue breaths

Perform 30 chest compressions using two fingers only

Lay the infant on their back on a hard flat surface

Place two fingertips on the centre of the infant's chest

Make sure your fingertips are placed so you will NOT apply pressure to the ribs, stomach or bottom end of the breast bone

Press straight down to at least a third of the depth of the infant's chest

Release pressure, but do not take fingertips off chest

Give 30 chest compressions at a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute

Give two rescue breaths

Continue alternating 30 chest compressions with two rescue breaths

After one minute, if you have no helper, dial 999/112 for an ambulance. Take the infant with you while on the phone

Continue giving 30 chest compressions followed by two rescue breaths until one of these things happen:

Professional help takes over

The child starts to wake up, open their eyes AND breathes normally

You become exhausted

Note: If you are unable, unwilling or untrained to give rescue breaths, you can give continuous chest compressions only

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